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Butterflies are the most charismatic invertebrate species in all of Nyungwe. There are over 120 identified species, forty of which are endemic to Nyungwe. On a sunny day the forest is full of brilliant patches of color.

Perhaps the most notorious invertebrate species is the driver ant, Dorylus spp. These ants travel in huge colonies and often move in columns guarded by larger ants with pinchers. Vibrations cause the guards to seek out the source of the movement and attack.

These ants are important carnivores in the forest. One study at Kibale Forest in Uganda found that the total ant biomass in a given area was larger than that of the mammalian carnivores. The ants also devoured more prey by weight than large carnivores.